Thursday, 12 June 2014

Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images

Nutrition Biography 


The "Nutrition Facts" table indicates the amounts of nutrients that experts recommend to limit or consume in adequate amounts.
Nutrition is the selection of foods and preparation of foods, and their ingestion to be assimilated by the body. By practicing a healthy diet, many of the known health issues can be avoided.[1] The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods.

Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation. They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions. Clinical nutritionists are health professionals who focus more specifically on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs. Government regulation of the use of this professional title is less universal than for "dietician."

A poor diet may have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy[2] and kwashiorkor;[3] health-threatening conditions like obesity[4][5] and metabolic syndrome;[6] and such
Hippocrates lived about 400 BC, yet Galen and the understanding of nutrition followed him for centuries.
The first recorded dietary advice, carved into a Babylonian stone tablet in about 2500 BC, cautioned those with pain inside to avoid eating onions for three days. Scurvy, later found to be a vitamin C deficiency, was first described in 1500 BC in the Ebers Papyrus.[14]

According to Walter Gratzer, the study of nutrition probably began during the 6th century BC. In China, the concept of Qi developed, a spirit or "wind" similar to what Western Europeans later called pneuma.[15] Food was classified into "hot" (for example, meats, blood, ginger, and hot spices) and "cold" (green vegetables) in China, India, Malaya, and Persia.[16] Humours developed perhaps first in China alongside qi.[15] Ho the Physician concluded that diseases are caused by deficiencies of elements (Wu Xing: fire, water, earth, wood, and metal), and he classified diseases as well as prescribed diets.[16] About the same time in Italy, Alcmaeon of Croton (a Greek) wrote of the importance of equilibrium between what goes in and what goes out, and warned that imbalance would result disease marked by obesity or emaciation.[17]

Around 475 BC, Anaxagoras stated that food is absorbed by the human body and, therefore, contains "homeomerics" (generative components), suggesting the existence of nutrients.[18] Around 400 BC, Hippocrates, who recognized and was concerned with obesity, which may have been common in southern Europe at the time,[17] said, "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food."[19] The book that is still attributed to him, Corpus Hippocraticum, called for moderation and emphasized exercise.[17]

Shoulder high portrait of a man with beard and mustache wearing a cap

Mistaken, but followed for a millennium and a half, Galen (1st century) created the first coherent theory of nutrition.[20]
Salt, pepper and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various preparations for example mixed with vinegar. In the 2nd century BC, Cato the Elder believed that cabbage (or the urine of cabbage-eaters) could cure digestive diseases, ulcers, warts, and intoxication. Living about the turn of the millennium, Aulus Celsus, an ancient Roman doctor, believed in "strong" and "weak" foods (bread for example was strong, as were older animals and vegetables).[20]

Galen to Lind[edit]
It is hard to overlook the doctrines of Galen: In use from his life in the 1st century AD until the 17th century, it was heresy to disagree with him for 1500 years.[21] Galen was physician to gladiators in Pergamon, and in Rome, physician to Marcus Aurelius and the three emperors who succeeded him.[22] Most of Galen's teachings were gathered and enhanced in the late 11th century by Benedictine monks at the School of Salerno in Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum, which still had users in the 17th century.[23] Galen believed in the bodily humours of Hippocrates, and he taught that pneuma is the source of life. Four elements (earth, air, fire and water) combine into "complexion", which combines into states (the four temperaments: sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, and melancholic). The states are made up of pairs of attributes (hot and moist, cold and moist, hot and dry, and cold and dry), which are made of four humours: blood, phlegm, green (or yellow) bile, and black bile (the bodily form of the elements). Galen thought that for a person to have gout, kidney stones, or arthritis was scandalous, which Gratzer likens to Samuel Butler's Erehwon (1872) where sickness is a crime.[21]
In the 1500s, Paracelsus was probably the first to criticize Galen publicly.[21] Also in the 16th century, scientist and artist Leonardo da Vinci compared metabolism to a burning candle. Leonardo did not publish his works on this subject, but he was not afraid of thinking for himself and he definitely disagreed with Galen.[16] Ultimately, 16th century works of Andreas Vesalius, sometimes called the father of modern medicine, overturned Galen's ideas.[25] He was followed by piercing thought amalgamated with the era's mysticism and religion sometimes fueled by the mechanics of Newton and Galileo. Jan Baptist van Helmont, who discovered several gases such as carbon dioxide, performed the first quantitative experiment. Robert Boyle advanced chemistry. Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller worked out the difference between nerves and muscles.[26]

Sometimes overlooked during his life, James Lind, a physician in the British navy, performed the first scientific nutrition experiment in 1747. Lind discovered that lime juice saved sailors that had been at sea for years from scurvy, a deadly and painful bleeding disorder. Between 1500 and 1800, an estimated two million sailors had died of scurvy.[27] The discovery was ignored for forty years, after which British sailors became known as "limeys."[28] The essential vitamin C within citrus fruits would not be identified by scientists until 1932.[27]

By containing his assistant, Armand Seguin, inside a rubber suit fitted with a tube sealed to his mouth with putty, Antoine Lavoisier first measured basal metabolic rate.[29] Drawing by Madame Lavoisier (seated at right).
Around 1770, Antoine Lavoisier discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat. He discovered the principle of conservation of mass. His ideas made the phlogiston theory of combustion obsolete.[30]

In 1790, George Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for fowl survival. In the early 19th century, the elements carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen were recognized as the primary components of food, and methods to measure their proportions were developed.[citation needed]

In 1816, François Magendie discovered that dogs fed only carbohydrates (sugar), fat (olive oil), and water died evidently of starvation, but dogs also fed protein survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component.[31] William Prout in 1827 was the first person to divide foods into carbohydrates, fat, and protein.[32] During the 19th century, Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Justus von Liebig quarrelled over their shared belief that animals get their protein directly from plants (animal and plant protein are the same and that humans do not create organic compounds).[33] With a reputation as the leading organic chemist of his day but with no credentials in animal physiology,[34] Liebig grew rich making food extracts like beef boullion and infant formula that were later found to be of questionable nutritious value.[35] In the 1860s, Claude Bernard discovered that body fat can be synthesized from carbohydrate and protein, showing that the energy in blood glucose can be stored as fat or as glycogen.[36]

In the early 1880s, Kanehiro Takaki observed that Japanese sailors (whose diets consisted almost entirely of white rice) developed beriberi (or endemic neuritis, a disease causing heart problems and paralysis), but British sailors and Japanese naval officers did not. Adding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of Japanese sailors prevented the disease, (not because of the increased protein as Takaki supposed but because it introduced a few parts per million of thiamine to the diet, later understood as a cure[37]).

In 1896, Eugen Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands. In 1897, Christiaan Eijkman worked with natives of Java, who also suffered from beriberi. Eijkman observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of beriberi but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice with the outer bran intact. Eijkman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, discovering that food can cure disease. Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B1, also known as thiamine.

Frederick Hopkins discovered vitamins, for which he shared a Nobel prize with Eijkman.
In the early 20th century, Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measured caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition. In 1906, Wilcock and Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan is necessary for the survival of rats. He fed them a special mixture of food containing all the nutrients he believed to be essential for survival, but the rats died. A second group of rats were fed an amount of milk containing vitamins. Sir Frederick Hopkins recognized that there exist "accessory food factors" other than calories, protein, and minerals, as organic materials essential to health but that the body cannot synthesize. In 1907, Stephen M. Babcock and Edwin B. Hart conducted the single-grain experiment, which took nearly four years to complete.

The conversion rate of omega-6 DGLA to AA largely determines the production of the prostaglandins PGE1 and PGE2. Omega-3 EPA prevents AA from being released from membranes, thereby skewing prostaglandin balance away from pro-inflammatory PGE2 (made from AA) toward anti-inflammatory PGE1 (made from DGLA). Moreover, the conversion (desaturation) of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme delta-5-desaturase, which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin (up-regulation) and glucagon (down-regulation). The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore, the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation, and mitosis (i.e., cell division).
Proteins are structural materials in much of the animal body (e.g. muscles, skin, and hair). They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each protein molecule is composed of amino acids, which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur (these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair). The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins (protein retention) and to replace damaged proteins (maintenance). As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential (an animal cannot produce them internally) and some are non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds). About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet. A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids (especially those that are essential) is particularly important in some situations: during early development and maturation, pregnancy, lactation, or injury (a burn, for instance). A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.

Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images
Nutrition Health Tips in Urdu for Kids In Hindi for Women for 2012 for Men for Summer in Urdu for Man Tamil Images

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